Nach der Flucht mehrerer hunderttausend BewohnerInnen und dem Tod zehntausender in den beiden Tschetschenien-Kriegen ist die aktuelle. In der russischen Teilrepublik Tschetschenien gilt russisches Recht. Präsident Ramsan Kadyrow herrscht mit seinem Sicherheitsdienst. Aktuelle Nachrichten, Informationen und Bilder zum Thema Tschetschenien auf Süshin-angyo.com <
Russisch-Tschetschenischer KonfliktIn kaum einer anderen Region, die Russland in seiner Geschichte unterworfenen hat, ist ihm ein derart hartnäckiger Widerstand. Ramsan Kadyrow ist seit zwölf Jahren Präsident von Tschetschenien, einer autonomen Teilrepublik in Russland. Putins Mann fürs Grobe ist. Nachdem ein russischer Teenager Ramsan Kadyrow kritisiert hatte, wurde er gezwungen, sich vor laufender Kamera mit einer Glasflasche zu.
Chechenien Inhaltsverzeichnis VideoReisebericht Camping Olsina (Lipno - Tschechien) Mai 2018 In der Tschetschenischen Republik ist es Spiderverse Stream sozioökonomischen Bereich Kino Weiden den letzten Jahren zu starken Verbesserungen gekommen, auch die Gewalt Serie Raumschiff Enterprise merklich abgenommen. Manche von ihnen hatten sich erst ab in Tschetschenien niedergelassen, inzwischen aber eine Existenz dort aufgebaut und nahmen tschetschenische Besitzansprüche als Bedrohung wahr, während viele alteingesessene Russen die Tschetschenen noch immer als Tamlyn Tomita betrachteten. In Tschetschenien werden die Alten gerufen, um bei Konflikten zu schlichten. De chechenske og Ingushetiaske tårne Chechen'sk mad Hvad er Checheninen? Chechenien's hovestad Grozny Chechensk tøj sports Chechenien national retten Galnish. The Second Chechen War (Russian: Втора́я чече́нская война́) was an armed conflict in Chechnya and the border regions of the North Caucasus between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, fought from August to April In August , Islamist fighters from Chechnya infiltrated Russia's Dagestan region, declaring it an independent state and. chechenien #chechenienistrussland fy military specialforces jeckimduett UnleashTheBeast. original sound - Sturmführer Nemanja ⚡⚡ Want. Moscow Saint Petersburg Sevastopol 1. On 15 OctoberRussian forces Geklonte Zukunft Stream control of a strategic ridge within artillery range of the Chechen capital Grozny after mounting an intense tank and artillery barrage against Chechen fighters. The Russian Airborne Troops headquarters later stated that 20 separatists were killed and two taken prisoner. Human Rights Watch veröffentlichten den Bericht Chechenien ein Spaziergang Blue Exorcist Anime4you ein Minenfeld. Am Zac Efron 10 January Some Sherlock Holmes Staffel 3 place it in a wider North Caucasian languages. Der Islam erreichte Tschetschenien vermutlich im Mittelalter und vermischte sich mit alten Riten und Glaubensvorstellungen. The first one was announced in when about Chechen switched sides. Consultado el 19 de abril de #chechenien | M Personen haben sich das angeschaut. Schau dir bei TikTok kurze Videos über #chechenien an. Im Juli besuchte ich die zu Russland gehörende Kaukasusrepublik Tschetschenien. Ich war in den Städten Grosny und Argun. Außerdem besuchte ich touristis. chechenien #chechenienistrussland fy military specialforces jeckimduett UnleashTheBeast. original sound - Sturmführer Nemanja⚡⚡ Want more trending videos?. According to Leonti Mroveli, the 11th-century Georgian chronicler, the word Caucasian is derived from the Vainakh ancestor Kavkas.. According to George Anchabadze of Ilia State University. The Grozny city discovery tour to Caucasus We visited GROZNY capital of Chechnya, one of republic of shin-angyo.com vlogs about trips to Chechenya here - ht.
The territory of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was divided between Stavropol Krai where Grozny Okrug was formed , the Dagestan ASSR , the North Ossetian ASSR , and the Georgian SSR.
The Chechens and Ingush were allowed to return to their land after during de-Stalinisation under Nikita Khrushchev  when Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was restored but both boundaries and ethnic composition of the territory significantly changed.
There were many predominantly Russian migrants from other parts of the Soviet Union , who often settled in the abandoned family homes of Chechens and Ingushes.
The republic lost its Prigorodny District which transferred to North Ossetian ASSR but gained predominantly Russian Naursky District and Shelkovskoy District that is considered the homeland for Terek Cossacks.
The Russification policies towards Chechens continued after , with Russian language proficiency required in many aspects of life to provide Chechens better opportunities for advancement in the Soviet system.
This declaration was part of the reorganisation of the Soviet Union. This new treaty would have been signed August 22, , which would have transformed 15 republic states into more than With the impending dissolution of the Soviet Union in , an independence movement, the Chechen National Congress , was formed, led by ex- Soviet Air Force general and new Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudayev.
It campaigned for the recognition of Chechnya as a separate nation. This movement was opposed by Boris Yeltsin 's Russian Federation , which argued that Chechnya had not been an independent entity within the Soviet Union—as the Baltic, Central Asian, and other Caucasian States had—but was part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and hence did not have a right under the Soviet constitution to secede.
It also argued that other republics of Russia , such as Tatarstan , would consider seceding from the Russian Federation if Chechnya were granted that right.
Finally, it argued that Chechnya was a major hub in the oil infrastructure of Russia and hence its secession would hurt the country's economy and energy access.
In the ensuing decade, the territory was locked in an ongoing struggle between various factions, usually fighting unconventionally.
The First Chechen War took place from to , when Russian forces attempted to regain control over Chechnya, which had declared independence in November Despite overwhelming numerical superiority in men, weaponry, and air support , the Russian forces were unable to establish effective permanent control over the mountainous area due to numerous successful full-scale battles and insurgency raids.
The Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis in shocked the Russian public and led to international condemnation of the Chechen rebels. In April the first democratically elected president of Chechnya, Dzhokhar Dudayev , was killed by Russian forces using a booby trap bomb and a missile fired from a warplane after he was located by triangulating the position of a satellite phone he was using.
The widespread demoralisation of the Russian forces in the area and a successful offensive to re-take Grozny by Chechen rebel's forces led by Aslan Maskhadov prompted Russian President Boris Yeltsin to declare a ceasefire in , and sign a peace treaty a year later that saw a withdrawal of Russian forces.
After the war, parliamentary and presidential elections took place in January in Chechnya and brought to power new President Aslan Maskhadov, chief of staff and prime minister in the Chechen coalition government, for a five-year term.
Maskhadov sought to maintain Chechen sovereignty while pressing the Russian government to help rebuild the republic, whose formal economy and infrastructure were virtually destroyed.
Most of these funds were taken by Chechen authorities and divided between favored warlords. Two Russian brigades were permanently stationed in Chechnya.
President Maskhadov started a major campaign against hostage-takers, and on October 25, , Shadid Bargishev, Chechnya's top anti-kidnapping official, was killed in a remote-controlled car bombing.
Bargishev's colleagues then insisted they would not be intimidated by the attack and would go ahead with their offensive.
Political violence and religious extremism, blamed on " Wahhabism ", was rife. In , Grozny authorities declared a state of emergency. Tensions led to open clashes between the Chechen National Guard and Islamist militants, such as the July confrontation in Gudermes.
Much better organized and planned than in the first Chechen War, the Russian armed forces took control of most regions. The Russian forces used brutal force, killing 60 Chechen civilians during a mop-up operation in Aldy, Chechnya on February 5, After the re-capture of Grozny in February , the Ichkerian regime fell apart.
Chechen rebels continued to fight Russian troops and conduct terrorist attacks. In response to the increasing terrorism, Russia tightened its grip on Chechnya and expanded its anti-terrorist operations throughout the region.
Russia installed a pro-Russian Chechen regime. In , a referendum was held on a constitution that reintegrated Chechnya within Russia but provided limited autonomy.
According to the Chechen government, the referendum passed with In September , separatist rebels occupied a school in the town of Beslan , North Ossetia , demanding recognition of the independence of Chechnya and a Russian withdrawal.
The attack lasted three days, resulting in the deaths of over people, including children. He also vowed to take tougher action against domestic terrorism, including preemptive strikes against Chechen separatists.
Since , Chechnya has been governed by Ramzan Kadyrov. Kadyrov's rule has been characterized by high-level corruption, a poor human rights record, widespread use of torture, and a growing cult of personality.
In April , Russia ended its counter-terrorism operation and pulled out the bulk of its army. The Caucasus Emirate has fully adopted the tenets of a Salafist jihadist group through its strict adherence to the Sunni Hanbali obedience to the literal interpretation of the Quran and the Sunnah.
Situated in the eastern part of the North Caucasus , partially in Eastern Europe , Chechnya is surrounded on nearly all sides by Russian Federal territory.
In the west, it borders North Ossetia and Ingushetia , in the north, Stavropol Krai , in the east, Dagestan, and to the south, Georgia.
Its capital is Grozny. Despite a relatively small territory, Chechnya is characterized by a significant variety of climate conditions. The average temperature in Grozny is There are no true districts of Chechnya, but many [ who?
The main dialects are: Grozny, also known as the Dzhokhar dialect, is the dialect of people who live in and in some towns around Grozny.
Naskhish, a dialect spoken to the northeast of Chechnya. There are other dialects which are believed to define districts, but because these areas are so isolated, not much research has been done on these areas.
According to the Census , the population of the republic is 1,,,  up from 1,, recorded in the Census. Other groups include Russians 24,, or 1.
The Armenian community, which used to number around 15, in Grozny alone, has dwindled to a few families.
The birth rate was According to the Chechen State Statistical Committee, Chechnya's population had grown to 1. According to some Russian sources, from to tens of thousands of people of non-Chechen ethnicity mostly Russians, Ukrainians, and Armenians left the republic amidst reports of violence and discrimination against the non-Chechen population, as well as widespread lawlessness and ethnic cleansing under the government of Dzhokhar Dudayev.
The languages used in the Republic are Chechen and Russian. Chechen belongs to the Vaynakh or North-central Caucasian language family, which also includes Ingush and Batsb.
Some scholars place it in a wider North Caucasian languages. Note: TFR —12 source. Many Chechens are Sufis , of either the Qadiri or Naqshbandi orders.
Most of the population follows either the Shafi'i or the Hanafi ,  schools of jurisprudence, fiqh. The Shafi'i school of jurisprudence has a long tradition among the Chechens,  and thus it remains the most practiced.
Following the end of the Soviet Union, there has been an Islamic revival in Chechnya, and in it was estimated that there were mosques, including the Akhmad Kadyrov Mosque in Grozny accommodating 10, worshipers, as well 31 madrasas , including an Islamic university named Kunta-haji and a Center of Islamic Medicine in Grozny which is the largest such institution in Europe.
On 19 January , 12 days after the Charlie Hebdo shooting , a march took place in Grozny against the publication of caricatures of the prophet Mohammed.
The once-strong Russian minority in Chechnya, mostly Terek Cossacks and estimated as numbering approximately 25, in , are predominantly Russian Orthodox , although presently only one church existed in Grozny.
In August , Archbishop Zosima of Vladikavkaz and Makhachkala performed the first mass baptism ceremony in the history of the Chechen Republic in the Terek River of Naursky District in which 35 citizens of Naursky and Shelkovsky districts were converted to Orthodoxy.
Since , the Chechen Republic has had many legal, military, and civil conflicts involving separatist movements and pro-Russian authorities.
Today, Chechnya is a relatively stable federal republic , although there is still some separatist movement activity. Its regional constitution entered into effect on April 2, , after an all-Chechen referendum was held on March 23, Some Chechens were controlled by regional teips , or clans, despite the existence of pro- and anti-Russian political structures.
Incidents of ballot stuffing and voter intimidation by Russian soldiers and the exclusion of separatist parties from the polls were subsequently reported by the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe OSCE monitors.
On May 9, , Kadyrov was assassinated in Grozny football stadium by a landmine explosion that was planted beneath a VIP stage and detonated during a parade, and Sergey Abramov was appointed to the position of acting prime minister after the incident.
However, since Ramzan Kadyrov son of Akhmad Kadyrov has been the caretaker prime minister, and in was appointed as the new president.
Many allege he is the wealthiest and most powerful man in the republic, with control over a large private militia referred to as the Kadyrovtsy.
The militia, which began as his father's security force, has been accused of killings and kidnappings by human rights organisations such as Human Rights Watch.
In , the US government financed American organization Freedom House included Chechnya in the "Worst of the Worst" list of most repressive societies in the world, together with Burma , North Korea , Tibet , and others.
In addition to the Russian regional government, there was a separatist Ichkeria government that was not recognized by any state although members have been given political asylum in European and Arab countries, as well as the United States.
Ichkeria was a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation between and This recognition ceased with the fall of the Taliban in The president of this government was Aslan Maskhadov , the Foreign Minister was Ilyas Akhmadov , who was the spokesman for Maskhadov.
Aslan Maskhadov had been elected in an internationally monitored election in for 4 years, which took place after signing a peace agreement with Russia.
In he issued a decree prolonging his office for one additional year; he was unable to participate in the presidential election since separatist parties were barred by the Russian government, and Maskhadov faced accusations of terrorist offenses in Russia.
Maskhadov left Grozny and moved to the separatist-controlled areas of the south at the onset of the Second Chechen War.
Maskhadov was unable to influence a number of warlords who retain effective control over Chechen territory, and his power was diminished as a result.
Russian forces killed Maskhadov on March 8, , and the assassination of Maskhadov was widely criticized since it left no legitimate Chechen separatist leader with whom to conduct peace talks.
Akhmed Zakayev , Deputy Prime Minister and a Foreign Minister under Maskhadov, was appointed shortly after the election and is currently living under asylum in England.
He and others chose Abdul Khalim Saidullayev , a relatively unknown Islamic judge who was previously the host of an Islamic program on Chechen television, to replace Maskhadov following his death.
On June 17, , it was reported that Russian special forces killed Abdul Khalim Saidullayev in a raid in a Chechen town Argun. The successor of Saidullayev became Doku Umarov.
On October 31, , Umarov abolished the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and its presidency and in its place proclaimed the Caucasus Emirate with himself as its Emir.
The Internal Displacement Monitoring Center reports that after hundreds of thousands of ethnic Russians and Chechens fled their homes following inter-ethnic and separatist conflicts in Chechnya in and , more than , people still remain displaced in Russia today.
However, according to Putin's advisor and aide Aslambek Aslakhanov most of them were since killed, both by their former comrades and by the Russians, who by then perceived them as a potential " fifth column ".
According to Ramzan Kadyrov, himself former separatist, more than 7, separatist fighters defected to the federal side "returned to the peaceful life" by In more than militants in Chechnya and adjacent provinces reportedly surrendered their arms in response to a six-month amnesty "for those not involved in any serious crimes".
The first war, with its extensive and largely unrestricted coverage despite deaths of many journalists , convinced the Kremlin more than any other event that it needed to control national television channels, which most Russians rely on for news, to successfully undertake any major national policy.
By the time the second war began, federal authorities had designed and introduced a comprehensive system to limit the access of journalists to Chechnya and shape their coverage.
The Russian government's control of all Russian television stations and its use of repressive rules, harassment, censorship, intimidation  and attacks on journalists almost completely deprived the Russian public of the independent information on the conflict.
Practically all the local Chechen media are under total control of the pro-Moscow government, Russian journalists in Chechnya face intense harassment and obstruction  leading to widespread self-censorship , while foreign journalists and media outlets too are pressured into censoring their reports on the conflict.
According to a poll only 11 percent of Russians said they were happy with media coverage of Chechnya. In the Second Chechen War, over 60, combatants and non-combatants were killed.
According to the pro-Moscow Chechnya government, , combatants and non-combatants died or have gone missing in the two wars, including 30,—40, Chechens and about , Russians;   while separatist leader Aslan Maskhadov deceased repeatedly claimed about , ethnic Chechens died as a consequence of the two conflicts.
According to a count by the Russian human rights group Memorial in , up to 25, civilians have died or disappeared since Environmental agencies warn that the Russian republic of Chechnya, devastated by war, now faces ecological disaster.
A former aide to Boris Yeltsin believes Russian bombing has rendered Chechnya an "environmental wasteland. Chechnya is the most land mine -affected region worldwide.
The most heavily mined areas of Chechnya are those in which separatists continue to put up resistance, namely the southern regions, as well as the borders of the republic.
In June , Olara Otunnu , the UN official, estimated that there were , land mines placed in the region. UNICEF has recorded 2, civilian land mine and unexploded ordnance casualties occurring in Chechnya between and the end of Military casualty figures from both sides are impossible to verify and are generally believed to be higher.
In September , the National Endowment for Democracy compiled the list of casualties officially announced in the first year of the conflict , which, although incomplete and with little factual value, provide a minimum insight in the information war.
According to the figures released by the Russian Ministry of Defence on in August , at least 1, Russian Armed Forces soldiers have been killed in action — The Chechens had become increasingly radicalized.
Former Soviet Armed Forces officers Dzhokhar Dudayev and Aslan Maskhadov have been succeeded by people who rely more on Islamist , rather than the secular nationalistic feelings of the population.
While Dudayev and Maskhadov were seeking from Moscow recognition of the independence of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, other leaders spoke out more about the need to expel Russia from the territory of the whole North Caucasus , an impoverished mountain region inhabited mostly by Muslim, non-Russian ethnic groups.
In April , asked whether negotiations with Russians are possible, the top separatist commander Doku Umarov answered: "We offered them many times.
But it turned out that we constantly press for negotiations and it's as if we are always standing with an extended hand and this is taken as a sign of our weakness.
Therefore we don't plan to do this any more. And this means mounting attacks at any place, not just in the Caucasus but in all Russia.
This trend ultimately resulted in the October declaration of Caucasus Emirate by Doku Umarov where he also urged for a global Jihad , and the political schism between the moderates and the radical Islamists fighting in Chechnya and the neighbouring regions with ties in the Middle East.
The struggle has garnered support from Muslim sympathizers around the world nonetheless, and some of them have been willing to take up arms. Many commentators think it is likely that Chechen fighters have links with international Islamist separatist groups.
However, the number of foreign jihad fighters in Chechnya was at most in the hundreds. The Clinton and Bush administrations, as well as other NATO governments, uniformly dismissed Moscow's rhetoric concerning the existence of Chechens in Afghanistan and Afghans in Chechnya as Soviet-style "agitprop" agitation-propaganda until September 11th occurred.
Islamic radicalisation process has also affected on Chechen separatist movement's support abroad.
In , the Tsarnaev brothers launched a suicide attack in Boston in claim of jihad , accusing the United States for killing Muslims of Iraq , Afghanistan and Palestine , weakened sympathy for Chechen resistance from Russia globally and increased xenophobia against Chechens and Muslims in the United States.
As of , the infant mortality rate stood at 17 per 1,, the highest in Russia;  There are reports of growing a number of genetic disorders in babies and unexplained illnesses among school children.
Some children whose parents can afford it are sent to the neighbouring republic of Dagestan, where treatment is better; Chechnya lacks sufficient medical equipment in most of its medical facilities.
In , Chechnya's pro-Moscow deputy health minister, said the Chechen children had become "living specimens" of what it means to grow up with the constant threat of violence and chronic poverty.
According to official statistics, Chechnya's unemployment rate in August was By , this figure had decreased to Hundreds of thousands of Chechens were displaced by the conflict , including , at the height of the conflict in The start of the war bolstered the domestic popularity of Vladimir Putin as the campaign was started one month after he had become Russian prime minister.
Since the Chechen conflict began in , cases of young veterans returning embittered and traumatized to their home towns have been reported all across Russia.
Psychiatrists, law-enforcement officials, and journalists have started calling the condition of psychologically scarred soldiers "Chechen syndrome" CS , drawing a parallel with the post-traumatic stress disorders suffered by Soviet soldiers who fought in Afghanistan.
According to the study by Memorial and Demos human rights organisations, Russian policemen lose their qualifications and professional skills during their duty tours in Chechnya.
According to human rights activists and journalists, tens of thousands of police and security forces that have been to Chechnya learned patterns of brutality and impunity and brought them to their home regions, often returning with disciplinary and psychological problems.
Reliable numbers on police brutality are hard to come by, but in a statement released in , the internal affairs department of Russia's Interior Ministry said that the number of recorded crimes committed by police officers rose The wars in Chechnya, and the associated Caucasian terrorism in Russia, were a major factor in the growth of intolerance, xenophobia , and racist violence in Russia, directed in a great part against the people from Caucasus.
The violence included acts of terrorism such as the Moscow market bombing which killed 13 people. Rioters demanded the eviction of ethnic Chechens following the murder of two young Russians who locals believed were killed by Chechens.
The event revived memories of a recent clash between Chechens and local Russians in Kondopoga over an unpaid bill, when two Russians were killed.
In , there were about 60, Federal troops in Chechnya, but that number has since decreased significantly.
Tony Wood, a journalist and author who has written extensively about Chechnya, estimated there were about 8, local security forces remaining in the region as of [update].
Independent analysts say there are no more than 2, armed terrorists combatants still fighting, while Russia says only a few hundred remain.
There is still some sporadic fighting in the mountains and south of the republic, but Russia has scaled down its presence significantly leaving the local government to stabilize things further.
Most of the more prominent past Chechen separatist leaders have died or have been killed, including former president Aslan Maskhadov and leading warlord and terrorist attack mastermind Shamil Basayev.
Meanwhile, the fortunes of the Chechen independence movement sagged, plagued by the internal disunity between Chechen moderates and Islamist radicals and the changing global political climate after 11 September , as well as the general war-weariness of the Chechen population.
Large-scale fighting has been replaced by guerrilla warfare and bombings targeting federal troops and forces of the regional government, with the violence often spilling over into adjacent regions.
Since , the insurgency has largely shifted out of Chechnya proper and into the nearby Russian territories, such as Ingushetia and Dagestan ; the Russian government , for its part, has focused on the stabilization of the North Caucasus.
Throughout the years Russian officials have often announced that the war is over. In April , President Vladimir Putin's declared that the war in Chechnya was over.
In a 10 July , interview with the BBC , Sergei Ivanov , Russia's then—prime minister and former minister of defense , said that "the war is over," and that "the military campaign lasted only 2 years.
Ramzan Kadyrov , the current president of the Chechnya , has also stated the war is over. The separatists deny that the war is over, and guerrilla warfare continues throughout the North Caucasus.
Colonel Sulim Yamadayev , Chechnya's second most powerful loyalist warlord after Kadyrov, also denied that the war is over.
In March , Yamadayev claimed there were well over 1, separatists and foreign Islamic militants entrenched in the mountains of Chechnya alone: "The war is not over, the war is far from being over.
What we are facing now is basically a classic partisan war and my prognosis is that it will last two, three, maybe even five more years. Although Russia has killed a lot of separatists throughout the war, many young fighters have joined the separatists.
An estimation, based on the war reports , shows that in the past three years Federal casualties are higher than the number of coalition casualties of the War in Afghanistan —present.
The Russian government has given no new name to the conflict while most international observers still refer to it as a continuation of the Second Chechen War.
In late April , the Human Rights Commissioner for the Council of Europe , Thomas Hammarberg , visited Russia's Caucasian republics.
After wrapping up the week-long visit, he said he observed a number of positive developments in Chechnya, and that there was "obvious progress".
He also noted that the judicial system in Chechnya was functioning properly. According to Hammarberg, missing people and the identification of missing bodies were still the two biggest human rights issues in the region, and he expressed his wish that further efforts be done to clarify the issue.
President Putin responded to his comments, saying that the visit was of "great significance", and that Russia will take into account what the council had to say.
Counter-insurgency operations have been conducted by Russian army in Chechnya since President of Chechnya , and former separatist, Ramzan Kadyrov declared this phase to end in March Medvedev directed the National Anti-Terrorism Committee , which Bortnikov also heads, to report to the Russian government on this issue, which will then be decided by the Russian parliament.
Close to active insurgents are currently [ when? On 16 April , the counter-terrorism operation in Chechnya was officially ended.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the war during the period of — For the following conflict in North Caucasus, see Insurgency in the North Caucasus.
Chechnya , Dagestan and Ingushetia Terrorist incidents across Russia. Second Chechen War. Russian offensive — Russian air bombardment Elistanzhi cluster bombing Grozny missile attack Shami-Yurt bombing Goity incident Grozny Staropromyslovsky massacre Katyr-Yurt bombing Novye Aldi massacre Hill Komsomolskoye OMON fratricide incident 1st Zhani-Vedeno Guerrilla phase — Insurgency since May Galashki 1st suicide bombings 2nd suicide bombings Alkhan-Kala Vedeno 1st Grozny crash Tsotsin-Yurt Shelkovskaya crash 2nd Grozny Khankala crash Grozny truck bomb Znamenskoye suicide bombing Nazran 1st Avtury 4th Grozny Dagestan sieges Borozdinovskaya Makhachkala bombing Nalchik Gimry 2nd Avtury Vladikavkaz crash Border incident Shatoy crash 2nd Zhani-Vedeno.
Chechen—Russian conflict. Post-Soviet conflicts. Nagorno-Karabakh —94 War War War Georgia 1st South Ossetia 1st Abkhazia Transnistria Tajikistan North Ossetia Moscow 1st Chechnya 2nd Abkhazia Dagestan 2nd Chechnya Kodori North Caucasus Ingushetia Russo-Georgian Kyrgyzstan Eastern Tajikistan Ukrainian crisis Euromaidan Pro-Russian unrest Odessa Russo-Ukrainian War Crimea Donbass Kerch Strait.
Terrorism in Russia. Bold italics indicate incidents resulting in more than 50 deaths. Incidents are bombings, unless described otherwise. Vladikavkaz Apartment bombings.
Kaspiysk Moscow Grozny. Znamenskoye Tushino Stavropol Red Square. Moscow February Grozny Moscow August Aircraft bombings Beslan.
Nazran Nevsky Express. Moscow Kizlyar Stavropol Tsentoroy Vladikavkaz Grozny. Volgograd October Volgograd December.
Grozny bombing Grozny clashes. Metrojet Flight going to Russia. Shchelkovo Highway. Saint Petersburg.
Part of the First Chechen War , War of Dagestan , Second Chechen War , Insurgency in the North Caucasus and Islamic terrorism in Europe.
Main articles: Chechen—Russian conflict and History of Chechnya. Main article: Caucasian War. Main article: First Chechen War. Main article: War of Dagestan.
Main article: Russian apartment bombings. Main article: Russian bombing of Chechnya. See also: List of Russian aircraft losses in the Second Chechen War.
Main article: Battle of Grozny — Main article: Federal government in Chechnya. Main article: Guerrilla phase of the Second Chechen War.
Main article: Chechen suicide attacks. Main article: List of Second Chechen War assassinations. Main article: Caucasian Front militant group.
Main article: Second Chechen War crimes and terrorism. Attacks on civilians during the Second Chechen War. Samashki Elistanzhi Grozny Shami-Yurt Goity Alkhan-Yurt Staropromyslovski Novye Aldi Katyr-Yurt Tsotsin-Yurt Borozdinovskaya.
Main articles: Georgia—Russia relations and Kodori crisis. Main article: Russian government censorship of Chechnya coverage. Main article: Casualties of the Second Chechen War.
Dezember forderte 72 Todesopfer. Bei einer Volksbefragung in Tschetschenien am März stimmten laut offiziellem Ergebnis 95,5 Prozent der Bevölkerung für den Verbleib in der Russischen Föderation.
Nach diesem Referendum erhielt die Republik durchgehend ein föderales Budget zur Finanzierung des Wiederaufbaus.
Mai wurde Präsident Kadyrow bei einem Bombenanschlag getötet. Gewählter Nachfolger Kadyrows wurde im August Alu Alchanow. Im Juni erklärte der im Untergrund lebende Maschadow in einem Radiointerview, die Tschetschenen seien dabei, ihre Taktik zu ändern.
Juni drangen nach Augenzeugenberichten etwa bis schwer bewaffnete Kämpfer aus Tschetschenien in die Nachbarrepublik Inguschetien ein und umstellten mehrere Polizeistationen und eine Kaserne von Grenzsoldaten.
Zahlreiche Polizisten, Soldaten sowie Mitarbeiter der Staatsanwaltschaft und des russischen Inlandsgeheimdienstes FSB wurden erschossen, weiterhin Zivilisten sowie der inguschetische Innenminister Abukar Kostojew.
Im August sprengten zwei vermutlich tschetschenische Selbstmordattentäterinnen zwei russische Tupolew-Passagiermaschinen und töteten etwa 90 Menschen.
Nach erfolglosen Verhandlungen wurde die Schule unter umstrittenen Umständen von der russischen Armee gestürmt.
Dabei kamen mehr als Geiseln ums Leben. Die Verantwortung für beide Terroranschläge übernahm später der Anführer der tschetschenischen Freischärler, Schamil Bassajew vgl.
Geiselnahme von Beslan. März wurde Maschadow bei einer Spezialoperation des FSB in der Ortschaft Tolstoi-Jurt getötet, nachdem er angeblich erst eine Woche zuvor erneut Gesprächsbereitschaft zugesagt hatte.
Seit dem 1. März ist Ramsan Kadyrow , der Sohn des getöteten prorussischen Präsidenten Achmad Kadyrow, Präsident des Landes. April wurde er vereidigt.
Anfang wurde seine Amtszeit um weitere vier Jahre verlängert. In der Tschetschenischen Republik ist es im sozioökonomischen Bereich in den letzten Jahren zu starken Verbesserungen gekommen, auch die Gewalt hat merklich abgenommen.
Dennoch besteht im Vergleich zu anderen russischen Regionen nach wie vor Aufholbedarf. Ramsan Kadyrow regiert Tschetschenien seitdem autokratisch , ihm werden schwere Menschenrechtsverletzungen vorgeworfen.
Abbrennen der Häuser, Folter und Mord sind die Methoden der sogenannten Kadyrowskys, der Kadyrow unterstehenden Milizen. Die Reichweite seiner Machtbefugnisse ist so weit gegangen, dass er selbst die Autorität der direkt Moskau unterstellten Sicherheitsorgane in Tschetschenien nicht mehr anerkennt und seine damit verbundene Unzufriedenheit offen zum Ausdruck bringt.
So etwa kritisierte Kadyrow einen Anti-Terror-Einsatz des russischen Innenministeriums, mit dem er die Macht in Tschetschenien nicht teilen will, in Grosny im Jahr Im Jahr ist die Zahl von Asylsuchenden aus der Russischen Föderation auf Opfer von Kampfhandlungen und Terroranschlägen wurden mindestens 50 Menschen, wovon 34 starben und 16 verletzt wurden .
Im Mai wurde in der tschetschenischen Hauptstadt Grosny eine orthodoxe Kirche angegriffen. Infolge des Angriffs wurden zwei Polizeibeamte und eine weitere Person getötet.
Die Republik Tschetschenien gliedert sich in 17 Rajons und 2 Stadtkreise. Daneben gibt es vier weitere Städte: Urus-Martan , Schali , Gudermes und Kurtschaloi Stand Die drei früheren Siedlungen städtischen Typs Goragorski jetzt Goragorsk , Oischara und Tschiri-Jurt wurden zu ländlichen Siedlungen herabgestuft.
Tschetschenien ist agrarisch geprägt. Die landwirtschaftliche Nutzfläche auf dem Territorium der Republik umfasst 1. In der Republik werden beispielsweise Getreide, Obst und Gemüse angebaut und Viehzucht betrieben.
In den Tschetschenienkriegen seit wurden alle Betriebe Tschetscheniens zerstört. Verschiedene lebensmittelverarbeitende Industriebetriebe wurden in den letzten Jahren wieder aufgebaut.
Die Medizinische Grundversorgung ist in Tschetschenien flächendeckend gewährleistet. Spezialisierte Kliniken sind nur in der Hauptstadt Grosny verfügbar.
Kriegsbedingt herrscht noch immer ein Mangel an qualifiziertem medizinischen Personal. Während der beiden Tschetschenienkriege wurden viele Schulen zerstört.
Aufgrund dessen und wegen der unsicheren Sicherheitslage und dem mit der Abwanderung von qualifiziertem Personal einhergehenden Lehrermangel verschlechterte sich das Bildungswesen und das Bildungsniveau in Tschetschenien.
Durch die Wiederaufbauprogramme ist die Bildung in Tschetschenien wieder flächendeckend gewährleistet. Derzeit gibt es Es gibt 15 Technische Schulen und 3 Hochschulen , an denen insgesamt Zwischen dem 8.
Jahrhundert war vermutlich ein Teil der Tschetschenen christianisiert. Ab dem Archivado desde el original el 17 de febrero de Consultado el 14 de marzo de Archivado desde el original el 30 de diciembre de The Diversity of the Chechen Culture: From Historical Roots to the Present.
UNESCO Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. World Meteorological Organization. Consultado el 20 de noviembre de National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
The New York Times. Consultado el 19 de abril de Orlov; V. Archivado desde el original el 9 de febrero de Consultado el 19 de octubre de